Markey Cancer
Control Program


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University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Control Program
Research Resources — Boilerplate language

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S   |   T   |   U   |   V   |   W   |   X   |   Y   |   Z

Animal Care, also here
The UK Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) is responsible for ensuring accountability for animal purchases and required annual reporting. DLAR maintains background information on animal suppliers, including documentation of their quality control and animal-disease status. In addition, appropriate quarantine space, caging, and scheduling of the clinical laboratory are coordinated by DLAR before animals are received. Per diem charges are assessed for each animal to cover feeding, watering, bedding, sanitation, equipment maintenance, veterinary care, and so forth. The per diem does not include special services such as surgical care or research-related laboratory testing. The per diem rate varies, depending upon the species. Designated DLAR Staff members receive and examine all incoming animals. After the animals have been received, they are housed in quarantine, and the researchers are notified by electronic and/or written communication. The quarantine/conditioning period varies depending upon the species, source of the animals, and type of research to be conducted. Incoming animals are housed in compliance with the space recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. DLAR operates a clinical laboratory to support preventative medicine, diagnostic, and animal definition programs. The laboratory procedures include blood chemistries, hematology, rodent serologies, bacterial culturing and sensitivity testing, and parasite identification. DLAR has four full-time veterinarians who are responsible for animal health and disease control, along with administrative responsibility. The veterinary staff is available to all researchers for consultation or assistance. The Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) maintains an Animal Organ Referral System for researchers who use only one organ or system from a laboratory animal and are willing to donate tissues to other researchers. Surgical procedures are performed in the DLAR's Experimental Surgery facility, a fully staffed sterile animal-operating complex. Appropriate facilities and equipment are available for postsurgical care.

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Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
The BRFSS, the world’s largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people.

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Biostatistics Consulting Unit
The Biostatistics Consulting Unit, under the direction of Richard Kryscio, PhD, is a service center of the Kentucky School of Public Health and the UK Chandler Medical Center. The unit serves the statistical needs of faculty members, staff, and students and accepts consultations by appointment. Faculty members in the unit can assist researchers with virtually every step of the research process, including experimental design, data entry and management, data analysis, and interpretation of results. This multidisciplinary unit provides a broad array of biostatistical and epidemiological consulting services: biostatistical consulting to investigators on a fee-for-services-rendered basis; assistance with development of funding proposals, including development of the experimental design, data analysis, and power analysis sections of intramural and extramural grants; statistical consulting advice to Medical Center graduate students doing research projects or dissertations; and short, noncredit statistics courses for residents, fellows, and faculty members.

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Cancer Prevention and Control
The Markey Cancer Control Program is a multifaceted, comprehensive program consisting of six collaborative divisions, each of which receives funding from a variety of sources, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, state funds, voluntary health agencies, and private organizations. 

The following are the Cancer Control Program's six divisions:

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Center for Structural Biology 
This multidisciplinary research center is directed toward the elucidation of biological functions through the structural analysis of macromolecules. The center focuses on the structure of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates assisted by sophisticated computational analysis and molecular modeling. This is a central, interdisciplinary facility that operates a Rigaku x-ray beam generator and detector and high-resolution graphics workstations for molecular modeling data processing and analysis. Trained staff are available to provide information on sample preparation, instruction on the use of facility instrumentation and advice on all aspects of data analysis. X-ray crystallographic data (Brookhaven and Cambridge Data Banks) can be accessed directly from the facility via Ethernet. The center is a founding member of the Southeast Regional Synchrotron Consortium, a group that owns and operates an X-ray crystallography data collection facility at the Advanced Photon Source located within Argonne National Laboratory. This synchrotron radiation beamline, one of the most powerful in the world, is optimized for high-throughput data collection and difficult crystallographic problems. The Center runs two cores, a Tissue Culture and Protein Production Core and a Proteomics Core.

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Center of Membrane Sciences
The Center of Membrane Sciences was established to foster multidisciplinary research on biological and synthetic membranes and their interface. The center provides scientific and technological leadership and facilities to develop basic research in a new generation of membranes and to promote partnerships fundamental to knowledge and to technology transfer. As one of only a small number of academically based Centers of Membrane Science, the UK center has already received international recognition as a focal point of research among biological and synthetic membrane experts. Its faculty members, who come from the colleges of Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Pharmacy, Agriculture, Medicine, and Human Environmental Systems, compose multidisciplinary research teams who work to develop new areas of integrative membrane research and to respond to intriguing challenges of membrane sciences and technology. The center's strengths in the interface of biological and synthetic membranes are bolstered by the availability of diverse state-of-the-art research equipment and facilities for the fabrication and characterization of a new generation of membranes. Research activities cover a wide spectrum of topics associated with biological, synthetic, and specialized biofunctional membranes, including membrane structure-function relationships, low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes, pollution control, biosensors, separations, enzyme-based reactive membranes, membrane-based synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and specialty chemicals, microspheres, liposomes, drug-delivery systems, polymer chain interactions, polymer-substrate interactions, protein absorption to polymeric surfaces, food preservation, farm animal reproduction, renal physiology, and neurochemical basis of behavior. Structural studies employ high field NMR, ESR, ATR-FTIR, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, among others, and use a Langmuir-Blodgett film balance.

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Chandler Medical Center
The UK Chandler Medical Center encompasses UK Hospital and UK Children's Hospital; the Colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Health Sciences; the School of Public Health; and multidisciplinary centers such as the Markey Cancer Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging. Also included under the Medical Center umbrella are five Kentucky Clinics: three in Lexington and cancer treatment centers in Berea and Georgetown. Radiation medicine facilities are located in Maysville, Morehead, Somerset and Mt. Sterling.

As part of a major academic medical center, the 473-bed UK Hospital has ready access to a full range of technological, diagnostic, educational, research and information-retrieval resources. UK Hospital was named a Magnet Hospital in recognition of the outstanding nursing care at UK Hospital and UK Children's Hospital. It is the first hospital in Lexington - and only the 39th of almost 6,000 hospitals in the nation - to achieve the recognition from the American Nurses Credentialing Center, a subsidiary of the American Nurses Association.

Recently, the trauma center at UK Hospital was verified again as a Level I trauma center by the Committee on Trauma of the American College of Surgeons. As one of only two Level I centers serving the needs of Kentuckians, UK Hospital provides tertiary trauma care for Central and Southeastern Kentucky,

UK Children's Hospital opened in 1997 as a 65,000-square-foot, $12 million addition to UK Hospital, housing a 44-bed inpatient center; a 50-bed Level III neonatal intensive care unit, the only one in Central and Eastern Kentucky; 11 beds for 23-hour admissions/observation; a state-of-the-art pediatric intensive care unit; children's playrooms; and expanded family consultation and waiting rooms. Inpatient admissions each year total about 6,000.

The UK Markey Cancer Center maintains a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. With the most up-to-the-minute research in cancer care and technological advances in prevention and treatment, new ground is being broken every day. One of the newest additions to the center, the Mary Lou Whitney and John Hendrickson Cancer Facility for Women houses multidisciplinary clinics and programs dedicated to providing compassionate, state-of-the-art care and advanced, creative research to prevent and cure women's cancers.

The UK Neurosciences Institute provides revolutionary treatment of neurological disease, bold new solutions to the prevention and treatment of strokes, and the most advanced model of the non-invasive Gamma Knife in the state. The UK Minimally Invasive Surgery Center brings the most up-to-date surgical technologies in minimally invasive — or laparoscopic — surgery. The Linda and Jack Gill Heart Institute at UK provides comprehensive services in cardiology, pediatric cardiology, and cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. The Institute, along with the new Center for Advanced Surgery, will be housed in a new facility to open in early 2004.

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Clinical Oncology Research Program of the Markey Cancer Center
The Markey Cancer Center's Clinical Oncology Research Program (M-CORP) is a core resource that facilitates and manages the development, initiation/activation, conduct, and data management of all types of clinical oncology studies, including NCI Cooperative Group studies, investigator-initiated studies, and pharmaceutical company studies.

The functions of this office are to:

  1. Serve as the primary point of contact within the University for clinical investigators and clinical trial sponsoring agencies for oncology studies.
  2. Assist in the design/development of novel clinical studies.
  3. Assist in negotiation of sponsor support for conduct & completion of individual studies.
  4. Prepare protocols for presentation to the IRB and shepherd studies through the necessary institutional review processes.
  5. Screen patients for eligibility and register patients on relevant protocols.
  6. Arrange and document all study-related interventions.
  7. Set up and maintain all study-related files, complete all study-related information, and enter information into a computerized database.
  8. Provide protocol availability and accrual updates for investigators.
  9. Coordinate information processing for quality assurance audits by Sponsoring Agencies.
  10. Provide protocol availability and accrual updates for investigators.
  11. Serve as a coordinating center for community oncology affiliates performing clinical research utilizing University of Kentucky oncology protocols.
  12. Monitor protocol compliance of patients on study and advise physicians of required studies, treatment schedules and reports.
  13. Periodically conduct data management workshops or in-service training for both university and community affiliate data managers/nurse oncologists.

Through this office, the Markey Cancer Center makes available approximately 125 studies for all types of cancer and, in conjunction with its affiliate institutions, places over 300 patients a year on clinical studies. M-CORP coordinates all institutional and affiliate activities relating to the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Cooperative Groups of the National Cancer Institute. M-CORP serves all oncology patient care areas of the University of Kentucky Medical Center and the adjacent VA Hospital as well as the Markey Cancer Center.

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College of Medicine
The University of Kentucky College of Medicine was established in 1956 and enrolled its first class of 40 students in 1960. Today, 3,000 graduates are counted as alumni. Annually, approximately 800 medical students, residents, and clinical fellows depend upon the diverse academic opportunities and experiential training provided by the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Graduate education at the master's, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels is also provided to approximately 350 students each year. The College of Medicine offers a faculty community composed of approximately 470 clinical and 130 basic science full-time professors and 589 clinical and 144 basic science part-time professors who nurture the students' academic experiences, as well as more than 860 community-based faculty members.

The focal point of the College of Medicine's teaching facilities is the UK Chandler Medical Center. Modern laboratory and classroom space is the center of activity for medical students. Clinical education is provided primarily at the on-site University of Kentucky Hospital, the UK Children's Hospital, the Kentucky Clinic, and the two divisions of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

The UK Chandler Medical Center comprises five colleges: Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Dentistry, and Allied Health Professions. In addition, the Kentucky School of Public Health in the College of Medicine entered its first class of MPH students in 2000 and its first class of DrPH students in 2001. College of Medicine faculty members work in the University of Kentucky Hospital, a 473-bed comprehensive acute care facility, and in the Kentucky Clinic for Ambulatory Care to provide care to approximately 375,000 patients each year. This health care facility offers the highest quality multidisciplinary education each year to more than 3,500 health professions students. The dynamic nature of this cooperation, available only through the combined resources of a major medical center, make unique and diverse educational experiences possible.

The Kentucky Medical Curriculum of the College of Medicine provides students with a solid foundation in basic sciences and with diverse opportunities in primary care, specialty care, and research in urban and rural settings. Through the many patient care programs of the UK Hospital, the curriculum affords students extensive training in a wide range of experiential areas that include the transplantation programs (bone marrow, kidney, heart, lung, liver, and cornea), the Lucille Parker Markey Cancer Center, the Trauma Center Emergency Service, the Burn Unit, the Cardiac Care Unit, Radiation Therapy Services, the MRI and Spectroscopy Program, and Diagnostic Imaging Services.

The University of Kentucky College of Medicine is an integral part of the University of Kentucky campus in the center of Lexington. The College of Medicine, located on Rose Street, is adjacent to the other four Colleges of the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center and to its research centers.

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DNA Repair
Growing evidence confirms that defects or insufficiencies in DNA repair systems confer increased risks for certain kinds of cancer and aging. This multidisciplinary program is involved in studies of the molecular mechanisms used by cells for removing DNA damage; of DNA mismatch repair and maintaining the integrity of the genome; of the conformational differences between damaged and undamaged DNA and their interactions with repair proteins; and of DNA damage-induced mutagenesis and DNA excision repair.

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Environmental Research and Training Laboratory (ERTL)
The Environmental Research and Training Laboratory (ERTL) is a shared-use, core facility at the University of Kentucky. ERTL’s mission is to improve environmentally related research by providing researchers and students access to, and training on, state-of-the-art laboratory equipment and techniques. ERTL was established in 2002 and features nearly $2 million of new laboratory equipment. ERTL is staffed by three highly trained and knowledgeable full-time laboratory managers. The facility provides educational and analytical support for inorganic and organic chemistry, geochemical cycling, microbiology, and virology by using the following instrumentation: a semi-volatile gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS); a volatile GC/MS; a gas chromatograph/electron capture detector (GC/ECD); a gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector/thermal conductivity detector (GC/FID/TCD); a liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS); a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC); an ion chromatograph (IC); a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer; two infrared spectrometer/mass spectrometer (IR/MS) systems; an elemental analyzer; an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscope (ICP-OES); a graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) system; and a mercury analyzer. Funding for the ERTL facility was provided by the National Science Foundation’s EPSCoR program (grant # EPS-0132295) and the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education.

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Experimental Therapeutics
The experimental therapeutics program in cancer is the result of a collaborative effort between the Markey Cancer Center and the College of Pharmacy. The goal is to substantially expand translational research in cancer drug development and to provide patients with earlier access to experimental treatment options. Emphasis is placed on the development of new drugs emanating from the pharmaceutical industry or on investigating new strategies with existing therapeutic agents. The program has four primary infrastructure components: a clinical experimental therapeutics program, a preclinical laboratory, a GLP analytical laboratory with a pharmacokinetic / pharmaco-dynamic support group, and a pharmacogenetics / pharmacogenomics laboratory.

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Flow Cytometry
This facility provides state-of-the-art analysis and sorting of single-cell populations for research. The facility offers a Cytomation MoFlo cell sorter with three lasers and high-speed cell sorting capability and a Becton-Dickinson FacsCalibur cell analyzer. Researchers can use the facility's equipment to analyze membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear antigen expression; light-scattering properties; DNA content, cell cycle phases, and apoptosis; and intracellular biochemical changes such as calcium flux and pH.

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Gene Regulation — DNA Sequence Facility
This facility has up-to-date computer programs on a Sun workstation to enable faculty throughout the university to compare DNA or protein sequences and to analyze and manipulate DNA and protein sequence data for molecular biology studies involving analysis of protein structure and function, gene cloning, and gene regulation.

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General Clinical Research Center
The UK General Clinical Research Center (GCRC), funded by the National Institutes of Health, provides an excellent environment for investigations of the cause, progression, prevention, control, and cure of human disease. It also provides an optimal setting for controlled clinical investigations. The GCRC strongly encourages collaboration among basic and clinical scientists. The goals of the GCRC are to develop, promote, and maintain a national core of expert clinical investigators; to train other health care professionals in clinical research; and to provide resources to advance scientific knowledge that may be translated into new or improved methods of patient care.

The GCRC is located in the 5 North wing of the University Hospital and on the second floor of the Kentucky Clinic. The Center provides medical scientists throughout the University with the resources necessary to conduct patient-oriented research. The GCRC also provides research investigators with services in the areas of administration, core lab services, data safety and analysis, patient care, and database management. The GCRC performs the following functions:

  • Provides clinical research infrastructure for medical scientists who conduct patient-oriented research;

  • Hosts investigators funded by the NIH and by other federal, state, and local agencies, as well as by the private sector;

  • Provides resources to allow investigators to perform pilot studies that may lead to funding from other agencies;

  • Provides the optimal setting for controlled clinical investigations;

  • Encourages collaboration between basic and clinical scientists;

  • Serves as an environment for training other health professionals in clinical research;

  • Provides resources that advance basic scientific knowledge and lead to new or improved methods of patient care.

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Hematologic Malignancies
Hematology/Oncology faculty members of the University of Kentucky's Medical Center and the Markey Cancer Center evaluate and manage the full spectrum of hematologic malignancies. A Blood and Marrow Transplant program provides high dose-intensity treatment options within a 16-bed "barrier" environment on the third floor of the Ben F. Roach Building of the Markey Cancer Center. Procedures provided include peripheral blood stem cell replenishment after high-dose chemotherapy treatment or whole-body irradiation; autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation; partially matched related-donor, T cell-depleted allogeneic transplants; partially matched unrelated-donor transplants; and an umbilical cord blood program. Clinical outpatient facilities for the treatment of hematologic malignancies are based in the newly opened Whitney-Hendrickson building. Services include chemotherapy, infusion, and supportive care with an on-site pharmacy. A pediatric hematology/oncology inpatient unit is based in the University of Kentucky Children's Hospital on the fourth floor of the Chandler Medical Center, and newly constructed pediatric outpatient space is housed in the Kentucky Clinic. Clinical research studies are facilitated through services provided by several institutional shared resources and core facilities, including the Markey Clinical Oncology Research Program, the General Clinical Research Center, two research-based flow cytometry core laboratories for sophisticated hematologic cell sorting and analysis, and the Medical Center Biostatistical Consulting Service. A tissue procurement service provides an essential link between clinical treatment and laboratory-based research projects.

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HP Superdome Complex Supercomputer
The University of Kentucky Information Technology provides state-of-the-art computing services to all faculty members, students, and staff members, as well as to members of the National Computational Science Alliance, a cooperative partnership of academic, government, and industry researchers engaged in developing and deploying cutting-edge high performance computing technologies. One of the main efforts of the Alliance involves the creation of the Access Grid, a collection of high performance and high throughput resources and services that support both formal and informal intergroup communication and interaction between Alliance users. UK is one of the initial sites on the national Access Grid. The principal large-scale scientific computational facility at UK is an HP Superdome complex consisting of four SMP servers interconnected by a high-speed, low-latency "hyperfabric" network, in addition to gigabit Ethernet links to the public network. Three of the servers in the cluster have sixty-four PA-8700 processors each, and the fourth has thirty two PA-8700 processors, for a total of 224 processors (at 750 MHz). The complex has 448 gigabytes of main memory, 5 terabytes of disk space, and is rated at 672 peak GFLOPs. UK has been ranked 8th among 27 high-performance academic computing centers in the United States and 109th among the top 500 supercomputer sites world-wide. Current projects by UK researchers using the Superdome cluster include computational chemistry, computational biology, computational fluid dynamics, ocean modeling, particle physics, protein structure, as well as projects in agricultural science, astrophysics, engineering, mathematics, pharmacy, and nanotechnology.

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Imaging Facility
The Imaging Facility is a multi-use facility available to all faculty members, staff members, and students at the University of Kentucky on a fee-for-service basis. The facility contains a central preparatory laboratory for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, photographic darkrooms, an ultrastructural sectioning room, and individual rooms for laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a PC workstation for image review and printing of confocal and electron microscopic images.

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The Kentucky city known today as Lexington is located near Harrodsburg, site of the first settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains, and Boonesborough, established in 1775 by Daniel Boone. Lexington was established in an area known as McConnell Springs and was named after Lexington, Massachusetts, site of the opening battle of the Revolutionary War. Lexington is located in Fayette County, named in 1780 in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, the most famous French supporter of the American Revolution. Lexington was originally a part of Virginia, but in 1782 the Virginia Assembly granted the town 710 acres, and in 1792 Kentucky became a state in its own right, with Frankfort as its capitol. The city is the home of Transylvania University, founded in 1780 as the 16th college in the United States and the first west of the Alleghenies. The school of medicine at Transylvania was one of the first five in the United States; it closed in 1860. Lexington's most famous citizen was probably Henry Clay, who built his estate in the city in 1812. By the early 1900s, Lexington had become the world's largest burley tobacco market. In 1924, William Monroe Wright, founder of Calumet Baking Powder, joined a number of horse farms to form Calumet, home of eight Kentucky Derby champion Thoroughbreds. Keeneland Race Course opened near Calumet in 1936.

Because Lexington houses two nationally renowned universities, the city offers many urban amenities just minutes from beautiful horse farms with their white fences and rolling countryside. Lexington's arts and cultural scene includes the Lexington Philharmonic, the Lexington Children's Theatre, Broadway Live, the Lexington Ballet Company, and the Ballet Theatre of Lexington. History enthusiasts can take in centuries of change at Henry Clay's Ashland, the Mary Todd Lincoln Home, the Hunt-Morgan House, the Bodley-Bullock House, and the Waveland mansion. The region's unemployment level is low, the cost of living is affordable, and the schools are excellent. The city has experienced sustained growth over the past 10 years, with new shopping complexes, additional manufacturing companies, and e-commerce strength. Lexington also offers exciting sports activities, including the University of Kentucky's seven-time national championship basketball team and the Lexington Legends, a Single-A baseball team that won its league championship in its first year of existence.

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Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center — Research Resources
See Research Resources of the Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center
The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center (MRISC) is a service center supporting basic and clinical research at the University of Kentucky. The Center includes an advanced 1.5T Siemens Magnetom Vision scanner with high-performance gradients, echo-planar whole-body imaging, and multinuclear spectroscopic capabilities for both human and animal studies. Also available are computing facilities, electronic and fabrication shops, and a multiuser laboratory available to support magnetic resonance and spectroscopy studies. Scientific and technical personnel are available to help in developing MR sequences and procedures and to help with image processing analysis. The mission of the Center is to support MRI and spectroscopy research at the University. To accomplish this mission, the Center has three specific goals: 

  • To facilitate research use of advanced MRI and spectroscopy instrumentation by students and faculty, including actively recruiting new users and developing new applications

  • To continue to upgrade and improve the instrumentation and software in the Center

  • To provide the best user-oriented research support services at the lowest costs possible, consistent with maintaining fiscal responsibility

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Mass Spectrometry Facility
The UK Mass Spectrometry Facility (UKMSF), located in the Advanced Science and Technology Commercialization Center (ASTeCC), is home to an impressive array of mass spectrometers. UKMSF provides analysis through many different methods of sample introduction, ionization, and mass measurement. Mass spectrometric methods are applicable in characterizing compounds originating from organic and organometallic synthesis, isolation of natural products, and analysis of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites. The facility is also involved in characterization of high molecular weight biologic compounds such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, complex lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as synthetic polymers, by methods such as MALDI and ESI.

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Nuclear Receptors
Under the leadership of Dan Noonan, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, UK scientists are conducting a multifaceted research program directed at understanding the mechanism(s) by which steroids and other lipophilic hormones and xenobiotics mediate both normal and carcinogenic pathways. Steroid/nuclear receptors, upon interaction with their cognate ligand, bind DNA. Both the rate and the pattern of gene expression mediated by DNA-bound receptor appear to be dictated by a complex of coregulatory proteins that bind the receptor and interact with basal transcription complexes. Recent studies have identified several novel coregulators of steroid/nuclear receptor family members. These coregulatory proteins appear to directly affect the ability of cells to respond to hormonal stimulation at both the gene expression level and the cell proliferation level. Additionally, results show that mutation of at least one of these proteins (tuberin) directly affects the pathology of tuberous sclerosis, an often fatal disease marked by abnormal cellular proliferation and migration, and of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a rare but fatal female-specific lung cancer. Current studies are aimed at resolving the mechanism(s) by which these steroid receptor coregulatory proteins affect gene expression and cellular proliferation. To this end, researchers use state-of-the-art molecular, cellular, and structural analyses aimed at delineating the intracellular signaling pathways that these coregulatory proteins help to define, determining their role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and discovering potential therapeutic targets for disease intervention.

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Office of Research Integrity (ORI) also here
ORI guides the university in developing and implementing policies and procedures that ensure compliance with federal requirements for the ethical conduct of research. ORI provides administrative assistance to three medical Institutional Review Boards and one nonmedical Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the protection of human research subjects; to the Radioactive Drug Research Committee (RDRC); and to the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). ORI also advises faculty members, staff members, and students about university and federal regulations; disseminates IRB, RDRC, and IACUC application forms; prepares and maintains federally mandated reports; and assists in handling IRB, IACUC, and RDRC reports of noncompliance. ORI also supports the institution in promoting ethical conduct of research and educating UK students and employees about research misconduct regulations.

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Office of Sponsored Projects Administration (OSPA) also here
OSPA submits extramural proposals and receives and administers grants and contracts for research, instructional, and service activities. OSPA assists faculty members with budgets and other business requirements of funding proposals; receives, reviews, and negotiates changes to awarded grants and contracts; serves as a source of information on grant or contract procedures and regulations; and prepares contractual documents when outside consultants and subcontractors are required. The unit also serves the administration of the university by implementing policy decisions affecting grants and contracts; by protecting the university's interests in interactions with sponsoring agencies and internal review of grant or contract matters; and by providing information concerning proposal and award activity.

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Ovarian Cancer Screening Program
Ovarian cancer is a curable cancer that must be detected early if extended survival is to be achieved. The OVarian CAncer REsearch (OV-CARE) program is an early-detection trial that offers free annual screening by transvaginal ultrasound, which detects virtually all small ovarian cancers. The mission of the program is to reduce deaths due to ovarian cancer in the group that is screened. The program is open to women who are at least 50 years old or women who have a risk evaluation equivalent to that of a 50-year-old woman. Thus far, more than 19,000 participants have received more than 85,000 free screening procedures in this program (more than 800 screening procedures have been performed per month). Preliminary results indicate that such screening reduces ovarian cancer deaths in the group screened. 

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Oxidative Stress
The Markey Cancer Center program in oxidative stress investigates the fundamental mechanisms by which reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species contribute to normal tissue injury and cancer formation. The ultimate goal of this multidisciplinary program is to develop novel strategies for intervention and improved treatment. Research areas include transcriptional regulation of the human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene; redox-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression; antioxidant protective mechanisms against cardiac and neuronal injury; suppression of radiation-associated transformation; interaction of reactive intermediates of environmental toxins with heme- and flavin-containing enzymes; the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds on the induction of oxidative DNA damage; the engagement of peroxisomes and characterization of a small family of intracellular receptors that can be activated by peroxisome proliferators.

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Proposal Development Office (PDO)
PDO assists faculty members in securing extramural funding to support their scholarly activities. Specific services include disseminating announcements about funding opportunities; identifying potential funding sources; serving as a liaison to funding agencies; assisting individuals and groups of faculty members in developing programs and proposals; conducting seminars on securing grants and on funding strategies; conducting new faculty orientations; and coordinating multidisciplinary research proposal submissions.

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Proteomics Facility
The Proteomics Facility is part of the University of Kentucky Mass Spectrometry Facility, located in the Advanced Science and Technology Commercialization Center (ASTeCC). By using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the Proteomics Facility determines protein structure from enzymatic digests.

The Proteomics Facility is designed to provide quantitative and qualitative protein profiling and identification analysis, as well as post-translational modification and sequence analysis through a combination of 2D gel, mass spectrometry, and Edman sequencing analysis services. The facility is equipped with a Bio-Rad immobilized pH gradient (IPG) and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) apparatus for 2D gel analysis; a Typhoon phosphorimager/scanner system for detection and quantitation of fluorescent protein dyes (Cy-dyes) and stains (SYPRO-Ruby, Pro-Q Diamond) used to analyze 1D and 2D gels; a Ciphergen SELDI-TOF protein profiling system; an ABI QSTAR II Q-TOF mass spectrometer with both MALDI and LC/ESI source capabilities; an ABI Procise 4 column Edman pulsed liquid phase sequencer; Waters high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems; and multiple PCs for data acquisition and analysis, including a site license for PDQuest software and a 5-station site license for Ciphergen software. The fully trained technical staff assists investigators with the full range of proteomics analytical services. Protein fragmentation, mass peptide mapping, and protein sequencing by both tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and chemical sequencing are performed on samples provided by individual investigators. Preparation and analysis of samples with the Ciphergen system are facilitated by automated robotic work stations. Data analysis is performed by investigators and their colleagues through multiple distant work stations connected to the Ciphergen system via the Web. 

The Proteomics Facility performs all aspects of Ciphergen analysis with samples provided by investigators. Samples are applied to protein chips, and the Chips are washed and prepared for SELDI-TOF analysis by using the automated BioMek workstation and the protocols and reagents supplied by the manufacturer. Chips are currently available with anionic (WCX2, CM10), cationic (SAX2) or hydrophobic surfaces (H10) for capturing complementary protein complements. Affinity capture techniques using chips possessing immobilized metal chelates (IMAC3, IMAC40) or chemically reactive (PS20, PS-10) surfaces are also available. The latter can be used to generate a variety of useful capture surfaces, including those containing small molecules such as biotin or glutathione as well as those with specific proteins of interest (e.g., antibodies). Thus, a substantial range of discrimination is possible with regard to components being analyzed. 

The Proteomics Core is located in four separate laboratories on the 6th floor of the Medical Sciences wing of the College of Medicine, contiguous with most of the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. One of the laboratories houses the ABI Procise Edman sequencer; the ABI QStar XL mass spectrometer and related equipment in located in the adjacent laboratory. The Ciphergen Protein Profiling System is housed in a dedicated laboratory with no other equipment. The 2D gel analysis equipment is housed in the fourth lab, together with a dedicated computer system for quantitative gel comparison. The total space dedicated to this core is ~ 1000 nsf.

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Research Resources of the Lucille P. Markey Cancer Center
The Markey Cancer Center functions as a multidisciplinary "matrix" center within the University of Kentucky, with an overall mission to foster and facilitate advances in the prevention, early detection and management of cancer. Operating with a small core of staff scientists, its programs, overall, engage a total of over 150 faculty in 29 departments of 8 different college of the university.

The physical facilities of the Center house a number of core facilities, including: Transgenic Mouse Construction, high-field NMR spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling, a Clinical Oncology Research Office, a specialized "barrier" animal care facility, a shared cell culture facility and a human hematopoietic cell processing facility. In addition, the center houses a Molecular Dynamics Phosphoimager, a BiaCore analysis system, Beta, Gamma and Top-Count radioisotope counters, spectrophotometers, Dupont-Sorvall preparative, high-speed and ultra-centrifuges, a digital photography system, and a glassware washing and sterilization facility.

Beyond the cancer center, the organization supports a Fluorescence Activation and Cell Sorting facility and a Tissue Procurement and Banking Service.

The center also offers a variety of pilot project funding resources for novel cancer-related research, as well as grant preparation assistance for interactive and program project grants.

The unique Cancer Prevention and Control Division of the center offers a number of extended services. The Kentucky Cancer Registry, now an integral component of the NCI-SEER program, tracks data on all cancer cases in Kentucky (approximately 20,000 new cases per year) with a reference activation date of 1991. The Cancer Information Service, also NCI-based, provides information and educational services, community outreach and research support services for the entire Mid-South region. A Prevention Research Center offers partnerships in research and demonstration projects in cancer surveillance and prevention throughout Kentucky.

Programmatically, the center highlights and supports the coordination of a number of areas of special emphasis, including: Organ-based programs in Breast, Gynecologic, Lung, Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary, Head & Neck, Hematologic and Brain cancer. Other cross-disciplinary programs include: Cellular & Molecular Biology; Signal Transduction; Oxidative Stress; Nuclear Receptors; DNA Repair & Carcinogenesis/ Tumorigenesis; and Cancer Prevention & Control.

These combined resources support a broad spectrum of molecular, cellular, animal, human and behavioral/epidemiology studies for the advancement of the overall mission.

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At the University of Kentucky, mice are housed primarily in the Combs vivarium and Central Animal Facility (CAF). The animal care and use program has been continuously accredited by AAALAC since 1966; these facilities have been part of that accreditation since opening in 1989. The facilities house nude mice, SCID mice, transgenic mice, knockout mice and conventional mice. All mice are SPF, with verification of a clean health status required before receipt of non-vendor mice. Quarterly sentinel evaluations are performed. Specialized rooms are available for BL2 research.

Primary enclosure for rodents is standard polycarbonate or polythenylsulfone shoebox caging with Micro-Isolator tops. Additional enclosures for mice include polysulfone Pressurized Individually Ventilated (PIV) shoebox caging system by Tecniplast USA. In order to provide maximum protection of the mice from mouse pathogens, mice are treated and cages changed in laminar flow, HEPA-filtered biosafety cabinets. A small number of mice that are used in specialized experiments may be housed in open cages, in rooms isolated from Combs and CAF. Mice are group housed, allowing visual, tactile, auditory, and olfactory stimulation (fighting males are an exception to this policy). Chew type enrichment materials are provided for the mice. All animals are provided food and water, ad libitum, with the exceptions of IACUC approved food/dietary control.

Combs and CAF are served by two dedicated HVAC systems that provide l00% coarse filtered, fresh air to all rooms at a rate of 10-15 air changes per hour. The laminar air flow Aclean rooms in the Combs Cancer Research Facility (CB14, CB16, CB17, CB19, CB20, and CB22) and the Central Animal Facility (MA 68, Ma 69, MA 71, MA 73, MA 75) have approximately 150 air changes per hour, with 20% fresh air input and HEPA filtration.

Humidification is zonal, and maintained between 30% and 70% relative humidity. Each room is individually temperature controlled at preset points, +2o, in the range appropriate for the species. Maximum/ minimum thermometers in rooms are monitored daily by animal technicians. This system is on diesel generator emergency power.

All animal room lights are fluorescent and timer-controlled operated. The average illumination is 30-40 foot candles at five feet above the floor (verified by a data logger manufactured by Edstrom, which is placed in each animal room for a minimum of 24 hours once a month). There are no exterior windows in any animal rooms.

The University of Kentucky IACUC provides review and approval for all animal care and use proposals at the University of Kentucky, regardless of the area of research. A staff of four veterinarians, headed by an ACLAM diplomate, oversees daily medical and humane care in Combs and the CAF. Twnety-four hour emergency care is provided year round.

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Specialized Animal Care also here
The UK Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) is responsible for ensuring accountability for animal purchases and required annual reporting. DLAR maintains background information on animal suppliers, including documentation of their quality control and animal-disease status. In addition, appropriate quarantine space, caging, and scheduling of the clinical laboratory are coordinated by DLAR before animals are received. Per diem charges are assessed for each animal to cover feeding, watering, bedding, sanitation, equipment maintenance, veterinary care and so forth. The per diem does not include special services such as surgical care or research-related laboratory testing. The per diem rate varies, depending upon the species. Designated DLAR Staff members receive and examine all incoming animals. After the animals have been received, they are housed in quarantine, and the researchers are notified by electronic and/or written communication. The quarantine/conditioning period varies depending upon the species, source of the animals, and type of research to be conducted. Incoming animals are housed in compliance with the space recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. DLAR operates a clinical laboratory to support preventative medicine, diagnostic and animal definition programs. The laboratory procedures include blood chemistries, hematology, rodent serologies, bacterial culturing and sensitivity testing, and parasite identification. DLAR has four full-time veterinarians who are responsible for animal health and disease control, along with administrative responsibility. The veterinary staff is available to all researchers for consultation or assistance. The Division of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR) maintains an Animal Organ Referral System for researchers who use only one organ or system from a laboratory animal and are willing to donate tissues to other researchers. Surgical procedures are performed in the DLAR's Experimental Surgery facility, a fully staffed sterile animal-operating complex. Appropriate facilities and equipment are available for postsurgical care.

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Survey Research Center
The University of Kentucky Survey Research Center conducts research of social pertinence with public policy implications, as well as research of theoretical or academic pertinence. The Center has conducted more than 450 studies since its establishment in 1979. The Center's client base includes local and state government agencies, private and nonprofit groups, and university researchers. The Center provides the expertise, resources, facilities, and staff for research using telephone surveys, face-to-face interviews, Web surveys, and mailed questionnaires. Staff members with graduate-level degrees in political science, economics, social psychology, public administration, business management, and marketing provide expertise in survey and questionnaire design, sampling, computer technology, and advanced statistical methods. The program uses the WinQuery Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) system and a 34-workstation call center. This software package is also available on laptop computers for field research. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) and Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (CASI) ensure data quality by reducing interviewer bias. For telephone surveys, the center uses a modified, list-assisted Waksberg random-digit-dialing procedure.

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Tissue Culture and Protein Production Core
The Tissue Culture and Protein Production Core, run by the Center for Structural Biology, is designed to facilitate cell culture and recombinant protein production by its users. It has available well-maintained equipment and instrumentation not normally found within individual laboratories including fermentors, bioreactors, cell cracking equipment, and chromatography for production of recombinant proteins. Instrumentation to characterize recombinant proteins such as a Circular Dichroism instrument, fluorometer and light scattering instrument are available in the Core. A staff member maintains the Core equipment and provide training to new users.

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Tissue Procurement Service of the Markey Cancer Center
The Tissue Procurement Service (TPS) of the Markey Cancer Center was established in July 1995 to supply well-characterized human tissues for peer-reviewed investigations in cancer. This service is provided by the Division of Surgical Pathology at the University of Kentucky Medical Center (UKMC), with headquarters in Room HC204 of the surgical pathology suite. All surgical and biopsy specimens generated at UKMC pass through this 1,600 square foot facility. The only tissues made available for research purposes are those that would normally be discarded, i.e., those that exceed the amount of tissue required for diagnosis. However, despite this restriction, ample material is usually available for supported research projects.

Equipment available within the TPS includes a CBS liquid nitrogen freezer, series 1500, which can store 9,100 specimens (2 ml each), and a Revco upright freezer (-80°). Record keeping is managed with a dedicated Dell laptop computer. The TPS technician carries a beeper and is available during normal working hours.

The Director of the TPS, Michael Cibull, MD, is also the Director of Surgical Pathology; this arrangement markedly facilitates the procurement and processing of tissues needed for research. Prospective resource users submit written requests for tissues by using a standardized request form. This form elicits specific information about the kind and amount of tissue needed and about processing specifications. In addition, the destination of the tissue is specified, and IRB approval or exemption is documented before the request is processed. Moreover, the request form notifies the user that cost recovery will be required and that requests for funding should be part of any grant application projecting the use of human tissue through this mechanism.

The TPS acquires fresh tissue from surgical pathology (or from the autopsy service or other clinical laboratories, as appropriate) and performs initial processing, such as snap freezing, freezing in OCT frozen tissue matrix, and sterile handling, according to the instructions of the requesting investigator. The tissue is then either delivered directly to the requesting laboratory or stored in the -80° freezer or in a liquid nitrogen immersion freezer for later batch distribution. Each specimen obtained by the service is identified by a unique number separate from the surgical pathology number so that patient confidentiality is maintained.

Day-to-day operation, including all tissue procurement, processing, and delivery, as well as all routine record keeping, is the responsibility of the facility technician, who is under the direct supervision of Dr. Cibull. Scheduling is done on a first-come/first-served basis, except in the most unusual circumstances.

Tissue taken for research is cross-referenced with demographic information by using the unique identifying number. In this way, the opportunity exists to obtain follow-up information, when necessary, using both the hospital-based and the state tumor registries in conjunction with information available in the tissue bank database.

An Advisory Committee, consisting of users plus the head of Surgical Oncology, provides oversight and evaluation of the facility. Dr. Cibull and the TPS technician review all tissue requests for appropriateness for each study and establish a plan for collection and distribution of tissue.

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Transgenic Mouse Facility
The Transgenic Mouse Facility (TMF) provides a state-of-the-art approach to the introduction of recombinant DNA molecules into the mouse germline via microinjection. TMF personnel advise researchers about methods of preparing DNA for microinjection and transgenic mouse analysis. Researchers supply the facility with recombinant DNA in a form suitable for microinjection. A trained technician performs all surgical and microinjection procedures. The laboratory is equipped with a Nikon Diaphot-TMD microscope with a Hoffman modulation contrast optic system and two Narashige micromanipulators. The facility also offers cryopreservation of mouse sperm and rederivation of cryopreserved mouse lines.

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University of Kentucky
Founded in 1865 as a land-grant institution, and adjacent to downtown Lexington, the University of Kentucky (UK) is nestled in the very heart of the beautiful Kentucky Bluegrass region. From its early beginnings, with only 190 students and 10 professors, UK's campus now covers more than 687 acres and is home to more than 34,000 students and nearly 12,000 employees.

UK is one of only a few universities in the country with a teaching and research campus, a medical center, and a community college all in one central location. The state's flagship university consists of 15 academic and professional colleges in which students can choose from some 200 majors and degree programs. The colleges are Agriculture, Arts and Sciences, Business and Economics, Communications and Information Studies, Dentistry, Design, Education, Engineering, Fine Arts, Health Sciences, Law, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Social Work.

UK's student body is diverse, representing 117 countries, every state in the nation, and every Kentucky county. Admissions are selective, and UK ranks among the top 50 universities in the annual U.S. News & World Report survey. The university also attracts excellent students. The average ACT score for first-year students is four points above the national average. In 2003, UK earned a spot among the top 15 public universities in enrolling new freshman National Merit® Scholars, placing the university 35th among both public and private institutions. Students compete successfully for prestigious scholarships and awards, such as the Fulbright, Truman, Goldwater, and Marshall. In 2002, UK was selected as one of only 13 universities nationwide to participate in the Beckman Foundation Scholarship program. This program allows UK to award grants of $17,600 to students to support their own research projects.

Since the mid-1990s, the University has pursued an ambitious goal of becoming a top-20 public research university by the year 2020. UK President Lee T. Todd Jr. has embraced this goal, and the university is working aggressively to achieve it. During the last fiscal year, UK faculty members received a total of $212 million in extramural grants and contracts, a 22 percent increase over the previous year. These numbers place the university 52nd on the National Science Foundation's list of all institutions and 36th among public universities. UK boasts more than 80 national rankings for academic excellence. The College of Pharmacy, the Martin School of Public Policy and Administration, the College of Law, and the College of Medicine are highly ranked in U.S. News & World Report's rankings of the best graduate schools. The College of Pharmacy is third, and the Martin School is ranked fifth in the category of public finance and budgeting. The College of Law is ranked among the top 25 law schools at public institutions, the College of Medicine's Rural Medicine program is ninth, and the College of Nursing is ranked 29th.

With its well manicured landscape and landmark buildings, UK's campus also offers great facilities that advance the scholarship of its students and the research endeavors of its faculty. The William T. Young Library, only five years old, is among the world's leading research libraries; its book endowment is the largest among public universities and ranks second only to Harvard University among all universities. Its broad scope of technology offers students, faculty members, and Kentucky residents special access to the most up-to-date information from online journals, government publications, and private studies, as well as more traditional materials.

Research at the University of Kentucky is a dynamic enterprise encompassing both traditional scholarship and emerging technologies. In more than 50 research centers and institutes, UK researchers are discovering new knowledge, providing a rich training ground for the next generation of researchers, and advancing the economic growth of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Several centers excel in the services offered to the public. The Center for Manufacturing Systems has assisted more than 500 small and mid-sized industrial firms throughout the state. The Gluck Equine Research Center is one of only three facilities of its kind in the world, conducting research into diseases of the horse.

Because UK is one of the few universities in the country with a research and teaching campus and a medical center in one central location, multidisciplinary research is particularly strong. The ASTeCC (Advanced Science and Technology Commercialization Center) building in the center of campus provides laboratory space for faculty affiliates who represent a variety of colleges and departments and is a hub for multidisciplinary research collaboration and commercialization. UK researchers engage in projects with professors at the University of Louisville, Murray State University, Eastern Kentucky University, and other public and private institutions across Kentucky, in other states and abroad.

The University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center was established on the campus of Kentucky's flagship university in 1957 and is one of the nation's finest academic medical centers. The faculty, students, and staff of our young, dynamic Medical Center take pride in achieving excellence in education, patient care, research, and community service. The 473-bed UK Hospital and UK Children's Hospital are supported by more than 500 faculty physicians and dentists, 400 resident physicians, and a staff of 3,200 health professionals committed to high-quality patient care. As the only Level 1 Trauma Center in Central and Eastern Kentucky, UK Hospital and UK Children's Hospital care for the most critically injured and ill patients in this half of Kentucky.

UK is reaching out to communities across the Commonwealth, sharing knowledge and making a difference in the towns, cities and lives of all Kentuckians. An example is Health Education through Extension Leadership (HEEL), a new partnership between the College of Medicine, its School of Public Health, the College of Agriculture, and the Cooperative Extension Service. HEEL was created to enhance the Cooperative Extension agents' capacity to deliver valuable health and wellness information throughout the state. UK also received a $22 million grant from the National Science Foundation to strengthen and reform education in math and science in pre-K through grade 12 in Kentucky. The grant is the largest single grant in the school's history.

UK's agenda is simple. It is to accelerate the movement toward academic excellence and to become known worldwide for the quality of its academic programs, its commitment to undergraduates, its success in building a diverse community, and its engagement with the larger society. That is what the University of Kentucky is all about.

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UK Chandler Medical Center
See Chandler Medical Center.

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UK Clinical Research Organization (UKCRO)
UKCRO provides clinical and translational research faculty and staff members with the infrastructure and operational support to facilitate access by citizens of the Commonwealth to outstanding clinical research trials. UKCRO is under the leadership of the Assistant Vice President for Clinical Research, who is responsible for developing and managing clinical research center activities and for ensuring that the Medical Center's resources are accessible to all faculty members engaged in clinical research. UKCRO consists of a Project Initiation/Management Unit, a Clinical Research Operations Unit, an Outpatient Clinical Research Clinic, a Clinical Research Marketing Unit, and a Clinical Research Compliance Unit. UKCRO also provides clinical research education to all faculty members, staff, and students who participate in clinical research.

The Project Intiation/Management Unit provides overall project coordination for all clinical research and assists investigators and their clinical coordinators in preparing and reviewing all documents necessary for the initiation and approval of the research contract. This unit also provides research project services such as a designated project coordinator, coordination of external monitors and close-out visits, a regulatory binder, IRB correspondence, study budgets, research nurse coordinators, adverse event submission, and preparation of Investigational New Drug (IND) applications.

The Clinical Research Operations Unit focuses on the operation of clinical research inpatient and outpatient units. This unit assists in recruiting patients, completing Case Report Forms, ensuring fiscal and regulatory compliance, reconciling patient charges, and ensuring appropriate changes to project budgets. The Inpatient Clinical Research Unit works with project coordinators to ensure clinical completion of the protocol; assists with patient recruitment, completes source documents and case report forms, and ensures fiscal and regulatory compliance. The Outpatient Clinical Research Clinic assists investigators with inpatient and outpatient research by scheduling volunteers, ensuring fiscal and regulatory compliance, and ensuring good clinical management.

The Clinical Research Marketing Unit concentrates on developing an aggressive marketing plan by managing newsletters, brochures, and Web sites; staffing booths at national meetings; and marketing clinical research to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical research organizations.

The Clinical Research Compliance Unit ensures fiscal and regulatory compliance with FDA and IRB regulations and with Good Clinical Practices. The unit audits industry-sponsored trials for protocol compliance and patient safety and monitors investigational new drug applications and investigational device exemptions. The unit provides researchers with a study software program designed to enhance data collection and monitoring. In addition, the unit ensures that University and Federal cost accounting standards are followed.

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UK College of Medicine
See College of Medicine.

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UK MicroArray Core Facility
The DNA Microarray Facility has been operational since July 1, 2001. It has developed the technology for Affymetrix chips and for custom cDNA microarrays.

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UK Research Foundation
Research leading to new knowledge and the transfer of this new knowledge through teaching and service are two of the primary responsibilities of the University of Kentucky. The University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF) is a not-for-profit Kentucky corporation established to receive, invest, and expend funds to promote and implement scientific, educational, and developmental activities at UK. Founded in 1945, UKRF serves as the university's agent in the receipt of all external grants and contracts, intellectual property income, and other designated income. UKRF oversees the protection, development, and commercialization of intellectual properties and manages special cooperative agreements.

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